Canine Core Vaccines:
- Rabies: Required by law.
- This vaccine should be administered to puppies no earlier than 12 weeks of age but as soon as possible after that. The first rabies vaccine a dog receives needs to be boostered in 1 year. Every rabies vaccine after that needs to be boostered every 3 years. Please read the article below, written by Dr. Paige, to understand why it is so important to have your dog vaccinated for rabies.
- DA2PP: Distemper, Adenovirus type 2, Parainfluenza, Parvovirus : Highly recommended nationwide and usually require for kenneling, grooming, and flying.
- This vaccine should be administered to puppies beginning at 8-9 weeks, then boostered every 3-4 weeks until the puppy is 16 weeks or older. Once this series is completed, it needs to be boostered again in 1 year. The dog’s first adult DA2PP vaccine needs to be boostered every 3 years thereafter.
Canine Optional Vaccines*:
- Bordatella: Recommended if the patient is in contact with other dogs of unknown vaccine status, i.e. dog parks and common dog hiking trails. Required if kenneling and usually at grooming facilities as well.
- We are now carrying the oral bordatella vaccines which only needs to be boostered annually regardless of age or vaccination history. It can be administered to puppies as young as 9 weeks old.
- Leptospirosis: Recommended if the patient is coming in contact with water sources where wild animals frequent.
- This vaccine should be administered to puppies during their distemper series (it is packaged separately and combined with the DA2PP vaccine) and needs to be boostered 3-4 weeks after the initial vaccine, then annually thereafter.
- Rattlesnake Vaccine: Recommended if the patient lives or frequently travels to areas of known rattlesnake habitat.
- This vaccine can be administered at any point that the owner and veterinarian deem it necessary, except for puppies under 8 weeks of age. The initial vaccine needs to be boostered in 3-4 weeks, then annually thereafter.
*The above-listed optional vaccines are only those that are recommended in our area. If you live or travel to areas outside of the Yampa Valley, you should contact a veterinarian in that area to help you determine what vaccines are recommended there.
As more and more people question the need to vaccinate their pets against infectious diseases, veterinarians are increasingly concerned about the resurgence of a killer. Thankfully, rabies is rare here in North America, but a reservoir of the disease is present in our wildlife. What’s the chance of your pet encountering a rabid animal?
By: Dr. Paige Lorimer
When I first came to Steamboat almost 17 years ago, I never worried about rabies in our area. Back then almost all veterinarians were recommending yearly rabies vaccination. Fresh out of school, I questioned the need to do this vaccine every year. Luckily, my boss Dr. Sam Taliaferro, was open to change and we eventually started recommending vaccinating for many diseases every 3 years. I remember at the time that although Dr. Sam agreed it was a good idea to vaccinate less frequently, he hoped we would never see a resurgence of any of these deadly diseases. He was a wise man. While rabies is still a low risk disease it is becoming more prevalent in our wildlife population in Colorado. There have been multiple examples of domestic animals being exposed to rabies on the eastern slope. The expectation is that eventually we could see rabies in wildlife around Steamboat. Anyone with a dog knows that a “wildlife encounter” can be a daily occurrence around here … sometimes just out your back door. It’s a scenario that happens all too often as urban sprawl encounters rural farmland and wooded areas. You hear aggressive barking and maybe a high-pitched “yip” or two. Looking out your window, you see your beloved dog in an all out battle with a raccoon! After breaking up the fight, your mind races as you check your dog for wounds and wonder about the chance of rabies. Now that rabies is a 3 year vaccine it can be easy to forget to update your dog’s vaccines. Every week I get stories about dogs and cats in other states that are exposed to rabid animals. If they are not vaccinated many of these pets are being euthanized. Last week alone I read about a “Rabid cow attacks farmer” in Georgia, “Rabid bobcat bites two dogs” in NE Georgia, “Two dogs and a cat euthanized after contact with rabid raccoon” in North Carolina and “Hunter needs a rabies shot after killing a rabid deer” in Pennsylvania. We haven’t had a problem in Steamboat yet … and we want to keep it that way.
Every year in North America, the Centers for Disease Control (www.cdc.gov) monitor the prevalence of rabies. Thousands of wild animals test positive every year and, despite mandatory vaccines for pets, hundreds of cats, dogs, horses and other domestic animals contract this killer as well. The good news is that rabies cases in people and domestic animals have decreased throughout the 20th century, but only continued vigilance will insure our on-going safety.
Several variant strains of rabies exist in North America, including strains found in skunks, raccoons, foxes and bats. Although these different rabies variants prefer certain hosts, they are capable of infecting almost any mammal, including people! And, despite reports of the canine strain of rabies being extinct in the United States, vaccines are still needed to protect our pets and ourselves.
Laws may vary slightly, but all states require dogs to be vaccinated against rabies. Many also require cats and pet ferrets to be vaccinated as well. For most pets, an initial vaccine after 12 weeks of age starts the series and this vaccine is “boosted” when the pet is a year old. Most veterinary schools and organizations, such as the American Animal Hospital Association (www.aahanet.org) recommend that veterinarians use a three year protocol for re-vaccination of rabies in our pets. This is what we currently recommend in Steamboat.
There is also an on-going study that is attempting to determine how long these vaccines provide immunity for our pets. The Rabies Challenge Fund (www.rabieschallengefund.org) was established in 2005 with a goal of determining how well vaccinated dogs are protected against rabies after five and seven years.
Thankfully, until this and other research is complete, you do have good guidelines to follow when it comes to protecting your pets. These laws are in place to help place a level of protection between potentially rabid wildlife and your family. Some veterinarians use Merial’s non-adjuvanted Purevax® rabies vaccine as a way to help minimize adverse vaccine reactions, especially in their feline patients.
These vaccinations can also be a life-saver if your pet does come into contact with a wild animal. If your pet is not vaccinated and fights with an unknown wild animal or even a confirmed rabid one, you will need to quarantine your pet for six months in your house and fenced yard only. If you are unable to do this they must be boarded at an approved facility. This extended observation period is meant to keep the animal under control in the event it does develop rabies. It is also a costly endeavor. A six month stay at an approved quarantine facility might cost more than $1500. Compare that expense to the $20 or $25 rabies vaccine…Sadly, many dogs have lost their lives because of this economic factor.
Never assume that your “indoor only” pet is safe from rabies either. Bats, the largest reservoir of rabies in North America, can find their way into homes very easily. Attracted to their fluttering flight or a dying bat on the floor, our pets, especially cats, risk exposure. And, since bat bites are almost undetectable because of their size, you might miss the fact that your pet has been bitten.
Finally, always contact an animal control officer or wildlife expert if you see a wild animal acting strangely. Because of the deadly nature of this disease, you should never attempt to capture a wild animal on your own.
World Rabies Awareness Day happens every September 28th. Although we rarely see human rabies deaths in our countries, more than 55,000 people die from rabies annually in Asia and Africa. That’s one person every 10 minutes! What’s even sadder is that many of these deaths are children. For those of us in North America, these deaths may seem remote, but we should never lose sight that this killer still lurks in our own backyard!
For more information on rabies, visit MyVNN.com to see informative videos. Call Pet Kare Clinic at 879-5273 with any questions and to check on your dog’s vaccine status.